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September 2018

Sep 26, 2018

Associate Attorney Compensation – Five Approaches


I am the owner of a six-attorney firm in the western suburbs of Chicago. There are five full-time associate attorneys working with the firm. Two have been with the firm over fifteen years, two over ten years, and one seven years. All are being paid salaries in excess of $100,000 per year and none are even close to generating $300,000 or more in working attorney fee collections per year. Their billable hours are dismal as well. While I have a 1200 annual billable hour expectation none are meeting that expectation. My income is suffering as a result. In addition to salaries they sometimes receive a discretionary bonus. I am at my wits end. What are your thoughts?


First of all I think that a 1200 annual billable hour expectation is too low and should be more like 1600 annual billable hours. For years the national average annual billable hours reported in surveys has been 1750 and this was the expectation for many firms for many years and still is for many firms. In the past few years, due to lack of work and other factors, some firms have lowered the annual expectation minimum to 1600. Litigation firms, especially insurance defense firms, currently have minimal expectations ranging from 1800 to 2000 hours. Firms that represent individual clients such as general practice firms, family law firms, and estate planning/administration firms currently have minimal expectations ranging from 1400-1600.

It looks like you are not enforcing the 1200 annual billable hour expectation that you have. However, you need to look into your situation and determine the reasons. It could be that they are not putting in the work because the firm does not have enough work for them to do. Look into the following possible causes of their low billable hours and take corrective action:

An approach that many firms are taking is to incorporate performance bonuses such as the following to motivate additional production. Usually these are on top of a base salary. Here are some examples:

  1. Base salary plus 5% of base salary if the billable hour expectation of 1600 is attained, discretionary bonus, and a 15% client origination bonus for bringing a client to the firm. The bonus is for the first year only.
  2. Base salary plus $50.00 per billable hour actually billed to clients that exceeds 1750 annual billable hours. 10% bonus on the collected revenue from other timekeepers that work is delegated to.
  3. Base salary plus 20% bonus for collected working attorney fees in excess of three times salary during the year. For example, an associate that is paid $100,000 would have an working attorney collection expectation of $300,000. If the associate had collections of $400,000 he or she would receive a bonus of $20,000. The associate also is entitled to receive a client origination bonus of 10% for business brought to the firm.
  4. Base salary, 1200 annual billable hour minimum expectation, quarterly production bonus of 40% of working attorney collected fees less salary paid for the quarter, and 20% client origination bonus for work done by others in the firm.
  5. Base salary plus 1/3 of hourly billing rate for hours billed to clients that exceed 1800 annual hours billed to clients.

Some firms have lowered base salaries when incorporating new performance bonus systems when the current expectation is far below expectation. Other firms are terminating under-performing associates.

Many firms are finding that many associates in small firms that have salaries of $100,000 or more are content and are not motivated by the bonuses available to put in the time to earn the bonuses. Work life balance is more important that earning additional income. The bonus systems work better for associates that are still hungry or have lower base salaries.

Firms that have had the most success in getting associates past the “entitlement mentality” are those that incorporate goal setting, accountability, and individual twice a month coaching meetings with associates in addition to the performance bonuses.

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John W. Olmstead, MBA, Ph.D, CMC


Sep 18, 2018

Law Firm Shareholder Admission Criteria


Our firm is a small firm of two shareholders and two associates based in Bakersfield, California. The firm was formed fifteen years ago by the two existing shareholders. We have never made any additional shareholders but we believe that we owe it to our associates to have some guidelines as to what we are looking for in future shareholders. A partner track program/document if you will. Do you have any suggestions?


I believe you should have at least a general set of guidelines laid out in writing. For example:

Associates that have been seven years in practice and two years or longer employment with the firm as an attorney and consistently performing as outlined below are eligible for Equity Shareholder level review based upon equity shareholder level openings, competencies attained, performance, and behavior.

  1. Seven Years in Practice and Two Years or Longer Employment with the Firm as an attorney.
  2. Individual Production Requirement
    1. Annual Billable Hour Expectation
      1. The firm has an annual billable expectation of 1800 billable hours.
    2. Origination Fees Collected
      1. The firm has an expectation of $100,000 or more per year for a minimum of three consecutive years.
    3. Generated (Working Attorney) Fees Collected
      1. The firm has an expectation of $300,000 or more per year for a minimum of three consecutive years.
    4. Responsible (Managed Revenue) Fees Collected
      1. The firm has an expectation of $400,000 or more per year for a minimum of three  consecutive years.
  3. Competency Level Attainment at Shareholder Level
    1. Knowledge
      1. The firm expects associate candidates to be performing at shareholder level.
    2. Skills & Abilities
      1. The firm expects associate candidates to be performing at shareholder level.
    3. Work Management
      1. The firm expects associate candidates to be performing at shareholder level.
  4. Character and Commitment 
    1. The firm expects associate candidates to have the commitment and character that the firm expects of shareholders. This includes a “firm-first” and teamwork attitude and behavior. Lone wolfs and mavericks will not be considered for equity shareholder status.
  5. Professionalism 
    1. The firm expect professionalism in the firm of dress, appearance, and behavior in dealing with personal in the firm, clients, prospective clients, referral sources, and colleagues and other professionals outside the firm.
  6. Client Service and Business Development 
    1. The firm expects associate candidates to be performing at shareholder level.
  7. Supervision and Mentoring 
    1. The firm expects associate candidates to be supervising and mentoring junior associates, paralegals, and staff.
  8. Client Satisfaction 
    1. The firm expects associate candidates to have a client satisfaction rating average over the last three years of 4.0 (maximum rating is 5.0) or higher as measured by the firm’s client satisfaction questionnaires that clients complete at the conclusion of a matter.
  9. Other Factors Considered – Associates should: 
    1. Be willing to share in the risk and reward of ownership and invest time and capital in the firm.
    2. Have a firm-first orientation and share the vision and core values of other equity owners in the firm.
    3. Add value to the firm and pay for themselves, cover their costs and share of the firm overhead, and generate enough work to keep other attorneys busy.
    4. Act like owners of small businesses.
    5. Contribute to the management and marketing of the firm.
    6. Mentor younger attorneys.
    7. Follow firm policies systems and procedures.
    8. Contribute capital, sign for the office lease, firm credit line, and share in other financial obligations of the firm.
    9. Be good marriage partners considering the other equity members in the firm.
    10. Exhibited the ability to supervise junior associate attorneys, paralegals, and staff.
    11. Successfully tried cases (litigation attorneys).
    12. Demonstrated the ability to either originate new client business or developed such a relationship with existing clients or referral sources that clients have sent business to the firm as a result of the relationship.

Associates selected for admission should be notified by the Executive Committee/Managing Shareholder and a meeting will be scheduled to discuss whether the Associate has a tentative interest in taking this step. If the Associate is interested in taking this step and after executing a non-disclosure agreement, the Executive Committee/managing shareholder should then prepare a detailed proposal outlining the mechanics and details required for admission. The proposal will include firm financial information, the buy-in or capital contribution requirement, and a copy of the firm’s shareholder agreement and equity shareholder compensation plan.

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John W. Olmstead, MBA, Ph.D, CMC


Sep 12, 2018

Lawyer Retention Incentives


I am the administrator of a sixteen lawyer firm in South Florida. There are six equity partners, two non-equity partners, and eight associates. The firm was formed nine years ago and we have lost no attorneys during this period of time. We believe that we have a positive culture and have great lawyer retention. However, we would like to do more to ensure that lawyers stay with the firm and implement more incentives for them to stay. I would appreciate your thoughts.


Interviews with associates and partners in law firms conducted by our firm as well as other consulting firms suggests the following key factors and best practices concerning attorney retention:

  1. Compensation. The firm must have a compensation system that is competitive, pays lawyers the market rate, and has the potential to pay above market rate.
  2. Benefits. The firm must offer competitive benefits especially medical insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, and a 401k plan.
  3. Work life balance. This involves flexibility and control over one’s practice, work hours, workplace – whether at the office or working remotely.
  4. Culture. Lawyers want to work in a culture that is supporting and encouraging. They want to work with peers and clients they respect. They want meaningful work.
  5. Individual marketing plan for lawyers. Lawyers need help focusing their time on business development. Firms need to help lawyers market their services in ways that benefit the firm and the lawyer alike but use non-billable time efficiently and effectively.
  6. Growth Opportunities. Lawyers need to perceive that the firm provides them with opportunities for growth in their work, type of clients, progression to partnership. They want to know if there is a partnership track and specific details if there is a track.
  7. Recognition. Lawyers join firms to receive prestige, opportunity, and clients. Junior lawyers want to maximize their options and get good training. Senior lawyers want profitable work. They want name recognition.
  8. Environment. Many lawyers are not interested in working in a rigid environment. Casual dress policies and informal policies concerning how to address lawyers and staff in the firm can go a long way in creating a relaxed atmosphere.
  9. Team spirit. Lawyers join firms to work cooperatively with others. Lawyers that want to work alone are solo practitioners.
  10. Quality Facilities. Don’t skimp on your facilities and systems. Invest in quality office facilities, furnishings,  and office systems.  Use state of the art technology. Many lawyers have left their firms and joined other firms because antiquated technology at the prior firm.
  11. Competent support staff. Failure to provide lawyers with competent support staff can be a major irritant and can cause lawyers to look at other firms.

For sure, ensure that your compensation and benefits for your lawyers are competitive. While compensation and monetary benefits play a key role in lawyer retention, many of the above factors plan an important role as well. Many of the lawyers that I see changing firms are for other reasons other than compensation and benefits. In fact, some leave for less money when they feel they are undervalued and see more opportunity for growth and development in another firm. Some leave when they see the opportunity for equity in another firm.

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John W. Olmstead, MBA, Ph.D, CMC




Sep 05, 2018

Law Firm Valuation – Factors that Effect Firm Value


I am the owner of a small estate planning firm in Kansas City, Missouri. I have two associates and four staff members. I am considering acquiring a small (solo) practice in a nearby community. I have read some of your articles as well as your book on succession planning and valuation, and the multiple of gross revenue used to establish a goodwill value for a law firm. What are some of the factors that can impact whether the multiple is higher or lower – a firm’s potential value?


While multiples of gross revenue is a common approach, a key ingredient should be the profitability picture before distribution to owners. In other words, what is the quality of earnings? A firm that nets fifty percent of gross revenue would generally command a higher price that a firm that nets twenty-five percent. Factors that should be considered in determining a firm’s potential value are:

  1. Quality of Partner Earnings
  2. Quality of Personnel
  3. Strategic Location
  4. Nature of Clientele
  5. Practice Areas
  6. Fee Structure
  7. Hours Managed by Partner
  8. Investment in Office Facilities
  9. Investment in Technology
  10. Quality of Services per Client Satisfaction Reviews
  11. Firm Stability

The average partner or owner earnings figure is the critical component. If the average partner/owner’s income is low, normally the practice is not worth much. A good business person will not pay for a business and pay a premium when it cannot be justified.

Click here for our blog on practice sale

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John W. Olmstead, MBA, Ph.D, CMC



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